Wednesday, September 18, 2019

The Space Race and the Apollo Program in 1968 :: American History Essays

The Space Race and the Apollo Program in 1968 I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before the decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to earth. No single space project in this period will be more impressive to mankind, or more important for the long-range exploration of space, and none will be so difficult or so expensive to accomplish. These words, uttered by President John F. Kennedy in May 1961 brought forth a new era in American history, the idea of sending a man to the moon. Only seven years later, in 1968, did America finally prepare to meet Kennedy’s deadline with the Apollo 7 and 8 missions. Recovering from the tragic fire of Apollo 1 in 1967, Apollo 7 put the Space program back on track. Only two months later, Apollo 8 led the first voyage around the Moon. These missions drew America’s goal for a lunar landing closer and took the Soviet Union out of the Cold War’s so-called "Space Race." The origins of the Cold War can be traced to the conclusion of World War II. Beginning with the Yalta Convention in 1945, and continuing with the Potsdam Conference later that year, the United States and the United Soviet Socialist Republic became embittered with each other over the division of Europe. This was a direct result of capitalism and communism with the blockade of Germany, the support of Communism in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Turkey and Greece and the refusal of Soviet forces to demobilize. Soon, the argument turned to America’s use of the atomic bomb in Japan in August 1945. The Soviets at first highly commended America for hastening Japan’s surrender but then repudiated it several weeks later. They claimed that it destroyed the balance of power between the two great world powers. By the early 1950’s, the focus shifted from the dilemmas in Europe to an even bigger threat, the threat of nuclear war. Both the US and the USSR claimed supremacy in Nuclear t echnology, specifically, the Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM). However, events changed permanently on October 4, 1957, when the Soviet Union launched Sputnik I, the first successful orbiting satellite. The United States immediately reacted to the launch by claiming it would have been first in launching a satellite had it not been for planning mistakes. After the launch of Sputnik II in November 1957, the United States made its first public reaction.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Cultural Changes: the Effect on Art

Cultural Changes: The Effect on Art You’re an artist during WWI, bombs exploding everywhere, innocent people even children losing their lives, how will you express your intense anger and sadness towards the events that are taking place? The frustration towards war and other social, political or cultural changes can bring about different responses from different people. When it comes to art, art movements are created out of the need for people to communicate their reactions to these changes. Whether they admire them or despise them, their central goal is to show how they feel about them. I’m going to start out with the art movement Dadaism. This movement was roughly between the years of 1916-1924. Some of the major artists were Jean Arp, Marcel Duchamp, George Grosz, Francis Picabia and Man Ray. The Dadaism movement was a protest against the brutality of the War and the strictness in both art and everyday society (Dadaism, n. d. ). Artists were so fed up with everyday life that they did everything they could to go against the norm when it came to art. Whatever art stood for at the time, Dada represented the complete opposite. If art was intended to have a message, Dada went all out to have no meaning. With the order of the world destroyed by World War I, Dada was a way to express the confusion that was felt by many people as their world was turned upside down† (Dadaism, n. d. ). These artists used any public medium they could find to figuratively spit on nationalism, rationalism, materialism and any other -ism that they felt contributed to a senseless wa r (Esaak, n. d. ). They used this as a way to protest the war and other social injustices. They felt if society was going to handle problems by going to war, they didn’t want anything to do with society or its customs especially when it came to art. Using an early form of Shock Art, the Dadaists thrust mild obscenities, scatological humor, visual puns and everyday objects (renamed as â€Å"art†) into the public eye† (Esaak, n. d. ). One of the artists even painted a mustache on the Mona Lisa and made obscene notes underneath. The community was completely disgusted, which the artists found very encouraging because that was the reaction they were aiming for. Dada was planned to instigate an emotional reaction of shock or anger and once it no longer did, it became useless. My second movement is Futurism. This movement was roughly between the years of 1907-1944. Some of the major artists were Giacomo Balla, Umberto Boccioni, Kasimir Malevich, and Liubov Popova. â€Å"Futurism was presented as a modernist movement celebrating the technological, future era† (Futurism, n. d. ). These artists wanted to represent art in terms of the technological age. They hated middle class virtues and the ideas of the past. They also wanted to represent art completely different from the sappiness of Romanticism. Futurism glorified war and supported the development of Fascism. It criticized traditional conventionalism, demanded social changes, and pointed out all of the faults of a corrupt government (McLaughlin, n. . ). The Futurist painters used repetition of lines, wide range of angles, brilliant colors, and flowing brush strokes to create a dimension of time and the illusion of movement. (Futurism, n. d. ). Futurists thrived on the imitation of speed, noise, and machines (McLaughlin, n. d. ). It embraced everything that the new world was creating and used new techniques and technology to produce the work. The nature of futurism was intended to instigate public anger and amazement, to stimulate controversy, and to attract widespread attention (Pioch, 2002). My third movement is Fascism and Socialist Realism. This movement was roughly between the years of 1920-1940. The fascist building style conveyed power and control (Order from Stone, n. d. ). This is something that is completely characteristic of Nazi principles. It was also another way for Hitler to show his power to the world. The buildings needed to be impressive and intimidating to express Nazi ideals of order and strength (Order from Stone, n. d. ). Architects used stark facades with columns, pilasters, and clean lines on a massive scale to create a new aesthetic (Order from Stone, n. . ). â€Å"They cultivated an aesthetic of order, using minimal decoration and emphasizing straight lines† (Order from Stone, n. d. ). Symmetry was important to Hitler because this was believed to create the image of order. Hitler wanted the buildings to be resilient and noticeable representations of Nazi ideals. Hitler also worked with architects to create massive assembly halls and grounds where the German people could gather and show their patriotism during speeches and rallies. â€Å"Like all other forms of art during the Nazi regime, architecture was a tool of the state† (Order from Stone, n. . ). This architecture was just another way for the Nazis to control the lives of the German people. Fascism also showed itself in Socialist Realism. Some of the major artists were Semyon Chuikov, Sergei Gerasimov, Arkady Plastov, Sergei Merkurov, and Vera Mukhina. Socialist Realism was a type of art in Soviet Russia and other Communist countries that involved an objective reflection of real life to educate and inspire the masses, and an uncritical glorification of the State (Chilvers, 1999). This art movement portrays the working class as being heroic. Socialist Realism paintings were mostly of domestic scenes, portraits, landscapes, farms, and patriotic scenes. As for sculptures, the usual creation was of heroic statues. This art was severely restricted in form and content. It was also seen as a powerful propaganda tool and as long as it followed the guidelines set by the communist party, it was accepted. Finally during the Post War Era we have the Abstract Expressionism movement. This movement was roughly between the years of 1945-1965. Some of the major artists were Jackson Pollock, Mark Rothko, Helen Frankenthaler, Willem de Kooning, Philip Guston and Robert Motherwell. Abstract expressionism was specifically an American post-World War II art movement† (Abstract Expressionism, n. d. ). â€Å"After WWII, with images of the Holocaust everywhere, it seemed redundant for socially-aware artists to paint these same images when a photograph was much more powerful† (Abstract Expressionism, n. d. ). With so much death and d estruction after the war, artists wanted to focus on producing paintings that were more lively, fun, and colorful. Artists began to look at color and shape and were painting whole canvases orange or blue. These works were formed in a particular geographical setting and showed a specific attitude. Artists also paid close attention to the surface quality as well as texture and used large canvases. Abstract Expressionism emphasized the portrayal of emotions rather than objects and most painters favored large canvasses, dramatic colors, and loose brushwork (Art History: Abstract Expressionism, 2009). Artists of this movement wanted to give emphasis to the accident or chance in their paintings, but they mostly planned how they were going to carry it out. Therefore, artists took advantage of any mistakes that occurred during the painting process. Abstract Expressionist paintings consisted of shapes, lines, and forms meant to create a separate reality from the visual world† (Art History: Abstract Expressionism, 2009). Artists saw painting as an expression of emotion and as a way to visually communicate to the public. There are two types of Abstract Expressionism, Action Painting and Color Field Painting. Action painters wanted to show paint texture and the movement of the arti st’s hand. Color Field painters were concerned with color and shape in order to construct peaceful and spiritual paintings without the representation of a theme. The philosophy of Abstract Expressionism searches for answers to the questions of human existence and addresses personal psychological battles, the external struggle between man and nature, and the hunt for spiritual comfort† (Art History: Abstract Expressionism, 2009) In conclusion, we can see that these art movements were created out of the need for people to communicate their reactions to social changes. Whether they admired them or despised them, artists expressed their feelings about them in some way. Dadaism was a protest against the brutality of the War and other social injustices. Their paintings expressed an anti-war and anti-norm attitude. Futurism celebrated technology and thrived on speed, noise, and machines. It despised middle class virtues, ideas of the past, and Romanticism. The fascist building style needed to be impressive and intimidating to express order and strength. It was also a way to have complete control over the German people. Socialist Realism was meant to inspire the masses and glorify the state. During the post war era, abstract expressionism searched for answers to human existence and used a style meant to create a separate reality from the visual world. It wanted to get away from painting the harshness of the war and focused on expressing a more colorful, lively, and fun feeling. All of these movements are similar in that they were a response to the social, political, and cultural changes of the time. In addition, the artists intended to send a message to its viewers. These messages were meant to control the actions of or get a specific reaction from its audience. In some way or another, they all managed to accomplish this. ? Bibliography Abstract expressionism (Late 1940’s – early 1960’s). (n. d. ) Retrieved January 20, 2010, from http://www. untfor. com/arthistory/C20th/absexpress. htm Art history: Abstract expressionism: (1940-1955). (2009, September). Retrieved January 20, 2010 from http://wwar. com/masters/movements/abstract_expressionism. html Chilvers, I. (1999). Socialist realism: A dictionary of twentieth-century art. Retrieved February 14, 2010, from http://www. encyclopedia. com/doc/1O5-SocialistReali sm. html Dadaism(1916-1924). (n. d. ). Retrieved January 20, 2010, from http://www. huntfor. com/arthistory/C20th/dadaism. htm Esaak, S. (n. d. ). Dada – Art history 101 basics: The non-art movement (1916-23). Retrieved January 20, 2010, from http://arthistory. about. com/cs/arthistory10one/a/dada. htm Futurism (1909-1914). (n. d. ) Retrieved January 20, 2010, from http://www. huntfor. com/arthistory/C20th/futurism. htm McLaughlin, N. (n. d. ). Futurism art. Retrieved January 20, 2010, from http://virtualology. com/hallofartmovements/futurismart. com/ Order from stone: Nazi architecture. (n. d. ) Retrieved January 20, 2010, from http://sitemaker. umich. edu/artunderfascism/architecture Pioch, N. (2002, October). Futurism. Retrieved January 20, 2010, from http://www. ibiblio. org/wm/paint/glo/futurism/

Monday, September 16, 2019

Statistics Data Driven Decision Making

It is known that there are two data types that are utilized to evaluate and draw meaningful conclusions through statistics, population and sample data. These two data types are utilized to formulate end conclusions of data that is to be collected and data that is to be reviewed. The description of population data can best be explained, as the complete collection of all data that is to be queried/collected and reviewed. Sample data, a subset of population data, is the partial collection and review of all data that is to be queried.The relationship of these two data types is simple; sample data is represented as a reflection of the population data and shares a common goal in this comparison through statistics. This can also either be represented as a part or as a whole of all data being evaluated. However we tend to utilize sample data more often than population data primarily as a result that sample data is utilized to formulate a coherent approach to drawing meaningful conclusions ab out the population.We utilize this through random sampling of population data to gather and make an assumption based on the population. This can kind of draw the conclusion that sample data and population data go hand in hand. As an example if we utilize â€Å"Culture Matters: A Survey Study of Social Q&A Behavior† an article which conducted, in 2009, a social survey of questions and answers based on cultural behaviors, we can come to find relatable data that can be identified through the understanding of sample and population data.An overview of this article notes that sample data was collected from four countries and turned overs responses from 933 people, of the population, who held similar job roles and were employed by a singular organization. This was completed to ascertain an understanding of what motivated an individual’s response to ask and answer questions while accessing a social network site.In this response the United States and the United Kingdom provided data which showed that western countries tend to associate themselves more with an individualistic approach and showed a lower context pattern, while China and India, Asian Cultures, tend to better associate themselves more with a high context pattern, and holistic collectivism. This data shows that the method of random sampling was utilized to ascertain a meaningful understanding of the sample data to formulate an assumption about the population of ones culture within these ountries and the role behind this decision making. As a result we can see that sample data which resulted in 38% UK workers, 41% US, 45% CN, and 50% IN was collected from the resulting population of a 100% of workers from all ethnicity working under a singular work group. This leaves to question the background ethnicity of those individual who did not participate in this survey. In result these statistics were utilized to draw a meaningful conclusion about this data both as a whole and as a sample.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Formal Outline Essay

INTRODUCTION Attention material: The world stopped getting warmer almost 16 years ago, according to new data released last week. The figures, which have triggered debate among climate scientists, reveal that from the beginning of 1997 until August 2012, there was no discernible rise in aggregate global temperatures. This means that the plateau or pause in global warming has now lasted for about the same time as the previous period when temperatures rose, 1980 to 1996. Before that, temperatures had been stable or declining for about 40 years. Credibility material: The current cycle of global warming is changing the rhythms of climate that all living things have come to rely upon. What will we do to slow this warming? How will we cope with the changes we’ve already set into motion? While we struggle to figure it all out, the face of the Earth, as we know it—coasts, forests, farms, and snowcapped mountains—hangs in the balance. Thesis statement: Today I want to share what I†™ve learned about global warming and it’s causes. Preview: We need to consider causes, effects and dangers of global warming. (Transition: Let’s begin by understanding more about global warming.) BODY I. The Earth is warming and human activity is the primary cause. A. U.S. scientists said in the media January 19, 2012, about the influence of mankind on the state of global warming has increased from 18% to 51%. B. The primary way humans cause global warming is by burning fossil fuels. 1. When we drive or fly. 2. When we eat meat and Exotic Foods. 3. When we use electricity. 4. When You Move Into A New Development. (Transition: Now, from this it becomes clear why humans are the main cause of global warming, let’s examine its major effects) II. Global Warming effect information. A. The planet is warming, from North Pole to South Pole, and everywhere in between. Globally, the mercury is already up more than 1 degree Fahrenheit (0.8 degree Celsius), and even more in sensitive polar regions. B. Some impacts from increasing temperatures are already happening. 1. Ice is melting worldwide, especially at the Earth’s poles. This includes mountain glaciers, ice sheets covering West Antarctica and Greenland, and Arctic sea ice. 2. Researcher Bill Fraser has tracked the decline of the Adà ©lie penguins on Antarctica, where their numbers have fallen from 32,000 breeding pairs to 11,000 in 30 years. 3. Sea level rise became faster over the last century. 4. Some butterflies, foxes, and alpine plants have moved farther north or to higher, cooler areas. 5. Precipitation (rain and snowfall) has increased across the globe, on average. 6. Spruce bark beetles have boomed in Alaska thanks to 20 years of warm summers. The insects have chewed up 4 million acres of spruce trees. C. Other effects could happen later this century, if warming continues. 1. Sea levels are expected to rise between 7 and 23 inches (18 and 59 centimeters) by the end of the century, and continued melting at the poles could add between 4 and 8 inches (10 to 20 centimeters). 2. Floods and droughts will become more common. Rainfall in Ethiopia, where droughts are already common, could decline by 10 percent over the next 50 years. (Transition: So now, we know about global warming effects, let’s see our future†¦and how we can fix it!?) III. Predicted Effects and Impacts of Global Warming. A. Future effects about global warming. 1. Increased spread of infectious diseases: â€Å"an increase in the number of people exposed to vector borne diseases (e.g. cholera) and an increase in heat stress mortality.† 2. Degraded water quality: â€Å"Projected climate change will tend to degrade water quality through higher water temperatures and increased pollutant load from runoff and overflows of waste facilities.† 3. More frequent and more intense heat waves, droughts, and tropical cyclones. B. Some basic predictions of global warming. 1. Global mean temperature should increase by between 1.4 and 5.8 C (2.5 to 10 F). 2. The sea level should rise by between 9 and 88 cm (3.5†³ to 35†³). (Transition: Finally, I want to tell you about the solution of this huge problem.) IV. Solutions to Global Warming. A. There is no single solution to global warming. 1. Boosting energy efficiency. 2. Greening transportation. 3. Revving up renewables 4. Phasing out fossil fuel electricityManaging forests and agriculture 5.Exploring nuclear 6.Developing and deploying new low-carbon and zero-carbon technologies. 7. Ensuring sustainable development CONCLUSION Summary statement: Some impacts—such as record high temperatures, melting glaciers, and severe flooding and droughts—are already becoming increasingly common across the country and around the world. However, there is much we can do to protect the health and economic well-being of current and future generations from the consequences of the heat-trapping emissions caused when we burn coal, oil, and gas to generate electricity, drive our cars, and fuel our businesses. Concluding remarks: Since 1880 the world has warmed by 0.75 degrees Celsius.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Destiny and Henley Essay

â€Å"Invictus† was written by Henley when he was in the hospital with tuberculosis. While in his twenties he contracted a tubercular infection that led to his leg being amputated below the knee. Later he developed the same infection in his other leg and was told it would have to be removed as well. Henley refused to have it amputated and sought the help of a doctor who had developed antiseptic medicine. Twenty months later Henley had finally recovered and was able to leave the hospital. It was during this dark time in his life when he wrote â€Å"Invictus†. When you read the poem you can see how passionate he felt: â€Å"I thank whatever gods may be / For my unconquerable soul†(Henley). Instead of falling into despair, Henley was able to be thankful that, though his body was beaten, his soul wasn’t. Even in the highest of his horrible circumstances, Henley refused to let life defeat him, but instead he rose up and fought back: â€Å"In the fell clutch of circumstance / I have not winced nor cried aloud† (Henley). He did not waste his time despairing over what he had lost, but instead focused on getting better. You can also see how desperately determined he was: â€Å"I am the master of my fate / I am the captain of my soul† (Henley). He refused to give into the idea that someone else was in control of his life. In the poem he cites â€Å"the bludgeonings of chance,† which shows he felt it was simply fate that this happened to him, and yet he went on to defiantly state that he was in control of his own destiny (Henley). By looking closely at â€Å"Invictus†, you can clearly see the struggles that Henley went through in his own life. The powerful tone in â€Å"Invictus† is gloomy and dark although Henley remains optimistic and with the help of the three types of figurative language the dark tone is constantly seen throughout the poem helping readers truly feel the misery the author is going through . Invictus could be taken as a hopeful poem for those suffering, constantly being reminded that you are the â€Å"Captain of your soul† and that it is you choosing to live in pain or be brave when facing a challenge. â€Å"Beyond this place of wrath and tears† refers that the writer has hope for the after life. Finds, and shall find, me unafraid† refers to the fearlessness of the writer â€Å"My head is bloody, but unbowed. † refers to his courage to fight. The use of imagery in â€Å"Invictus† provides readers with deeper sense of the poem and connects them to the author’s true feelings. Henley uses strong relevant adjectives to paint a picture of the horrors of misery he feels in the beginning and towards the end of the poem he allows readers to grasp that it was his bravery that helped him overcome the impossible. The theme of â€Å"Invictus†is one that appeals to most people. It is the idea that you control your fate more than anyone else ever will. In a world that cares nothing for us and often seems to be trying to destroy us, we can overcome all odds and be victorious because we, and we alone, are masters of our own fate. This is proven through the circumstances that the poem was written under. Instead of submitting to the original prognosis of the doctors and having his other leg removed, Henley chose to take charge of his life, find a new doctor, and ultimately change the course of his life (Invictus: A Study Guide). The theme is one of triumph and survival. Despite all odds, despite all expectations, Henley took control of his destiny and came out victorious. The fact that Henley wrote this during a dark time in his life added a wealth of emotion to the poem; he was writing from his heart and it was obvious. The overarching theme of the poem is relevant to everyone because when it comes down to it, we all want to feel like our life actually has meaning and is not just a sum of chance circumstances and happenings. The use of imagery in â€Å"Invictus† provides readers with deeper sense of the poem and connects them to the author’s true feelings. Henley uses strong relevant adjectives to paint a picture of the horrors of misery he feels in the beginning and towards the end of the poem he allows readers to grasp that it was his bravery that helped him overcome the impossible.

Japanese Canadians During Wwii Essay

Japanese people were blamed for everything from a bad crop to a flat tire† (Biase). Japanese Canadians claimed they were given many dirty and hateful looks, and overheard â€Å"people cursing at Japanese for their car troubles† (Biase). The Japanese Canadians were being punished for a crime they did not commit. Canada’s only defence for its actions was that, â€Å"Japanese people were not white and they ‘could’ be spies† (Biase). This meant people were suspicious and literally afraid of Japanese for being spies sent from Japan. As a result, Japanese Canadians had to deal with being blamed for things they did not deserve, thus resulting in being treated unjustly as a human being. This notice was distributed throughout British Columbia. If any Japanese were found in the prohibited areas listed, they would be incarcerated. Thirdly, the Japanese Canadians were sent to internment camps across Canada against their will. In Canada, there were 10 internment camps where, â€Å"3 were road camps, 2 were prisoner of war camps (POW) and 5 were self-supporting camps† (Robinson). Internment camps is a â€Å"large detention  center created for political opponents,  enemy aliens, people with  mental illness, members of specific ethnic or religious groups, civilian inhabitants of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, usually during a war† (Dictionary). In this case, internment camps in Canada at the time were designed for only Japanese Canadians. Internment camps were labour/work camps, which required heavy-duty work for the 22,000 imprisoned Japanese Canadians to do. Since World War II caused a large shortage of farmers, especially sugar beet farmers, the Security Commission Council organized, â€Å"Sugar beet projects to combat the labour shortage. This gave Japanese males a choice. The choice was to work in road camps as slaves or go to the beet camps and be with their families. Working in the beet camp was the choice taken by the majority of Japanese married men† (Biase). Considering the Japanese Canadians had to live inside the camps, the living conditions inside the internment camps were poor. They were crowded and were primitive with no electricity or running water. A story from Hideo Kukubo tells what life was like during the war: â€Å"I was in that camp for four years. When it got cold the temperature went down to as much as 60 below. The buildings stood on flat land beside a lake. We lived in huts with no insulation. Even if we had the stove burning the inside of the windows would all be frosted up and white, really white. I had to lie in bed with everything on that I had†¦ at one time there were 720 people there, all men, and a lot of them were old men. † This is just one of the many horrible stories the Japanese Canadians experienced. Therefore, the Japanese Canadians were treated unfairly when they were forced to work and live in internment camps. In conclusion, the Japanese Canadians suffered during the period 1929 to 1945. They had their property and rights taken from them, they were blamed for unnecessary things and forced into camps where labour was the only thing you did all day. Therefore, when Prime Minister Brian Mulroney announced a historic redress settlement for the Japanese Canadians on September 22, 1988, it truly was the best thing to do, even though it was long overdue.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Response 29 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Response 29 - Essay Example This was a fascinating yet a weird thought since, â€Å"how would that relate to the child’s emotional and intellectual development?† (Cranny-Francis 163). I have a penchant for kids, and still also cultivating my pathway to be a school psychologist, which makes me cringe at the thought of such an idea since it sparks disillusioned outcomes of the development of technology. This is because babies require the motherly tender touch for them to develop a streak for social interrelations as well as other essential behavioral traits. The upsurge of such a technological set-up would be tantamount to prioritizing technology than the relations with our close people such as family, friends and acquaintances. Nonetheless, the article, â€Å"Enhancement Technologies and the Body,† by Hogle cites some affirmative prospects about the technological enhancement of body parts. The article asks, â€Å"What might enhancement mean in a poor society where an artificial limb specially designed for working in rice fields or a bicycle designed to provide mobility means the difference in a person’s ability to make a living?† (Hogle 701). The example of technological development given is an archetype of the obscurity about the outcomes of the steady progress of